Tag Archives: The Holy Trinity

Mere Christianity: The Three-Personal God

From Mere Christianity, by C.S. Lewis

Beyond Personality: Or First Steps in the Doctrine of the Trinity

2.  The Three-Personal God

The last chapter was about the difference between begetting and making.  A man begets a child, but he only makes a statue. God begets Christ but He only makes men. But by saying that, I have illustrated only one point about God, namely, that what God the Father begets is God, something of the same kind as Himself. In that way it is like a human father begetting a human son. But not quite like it. So I must try to explain a little more.

A good many people nowadays say, “I believe in a God, but not in a personal God.” They feel that the mysterious something which is behind all other things must be more than a person. Now the Christians quite agree. But the Christians are the only people who offer any idea of what a being that is beyond personality could be like. All the other people, though they say that God is beyond personality, really think of Him as something impersonal: that is, as something less than personal. If you are looking for something super-personal, something more than a person, then it is not a question of choosing between the Christian idea and the other ideas. The Christian idea is the only one on the market.

Again, some people think that after this life, or perhaps after several lives, human souls will be “absorbed” into God. But when they try to explain what they mean, they seem to be thinking of our being absorbed into God as one material thing is absorbed into another. They say it is like a drop of water slipping into the sea. But of course that is the end of the drop. If that is what happens to us, then being absorbed is the same as ceasing to exist. It is only the Christians who have any idea of how human souls can be taken into the life of God and yet remain themselves — in fact, be very much more themselves than they were before.

I warned you that Theology is practical. The whole purpose for which we exist is to be thus taken into the life of God. Wrong ideas about what that life is, will make it harder. And now, for a few minutes, I must ask you to follow rather carefully.

You know that in space you can move in three ways — to left or right, backwards or forwards, up or down. Every direction is either one of these three or a compromise between them. They are called the three Dimensions. Now notice this. If you are using only one dimension, you could draw only a straight line. If you are using two, you could draw a figure: say, a square. And a square is made up of four straight lines. Now a step further. If you have three dimensions, you can then build what we call a solid body, say, a cube — a thing like a dice or a lump of sugar. And a cube is made up of six squares.

Do you see the point? A world of one dimension would be a straight line.  In a two-dimensional world, you still get straight lines, but many lines make one figure. In a three-dimensional world, you still get figures but many figures make one solid body. In other words, as you advance to more real and more complicated levels, you do not leave behind you the things you found on the simpler levels: you still have them, but combined in new ways — in ways you could not imagine if you knew only the simpler levels.

Now the Christian account of God involves just the same principle. The human level is a simple and rather empty level. On the human level one person is one being, and any two persons are two separate beings — just as, in two dimensions (say on a flat sheet of paper) one square is one figure, and any two squares are two separate figures. On the Divine level you still find personalities; but up there you find them combined in new ways which we, who do not live on that level, cannot imagine. In God’s dimension, so to speak, you find a being who is three Persons while remaining one Being, just as a cube is six squares while remaining one cube. Of course we cannot fully conceive a Being like that: just as, if we were so made that we perceived only two dimensions in space we could never properly imagine a cube. But we can get a sort of faint notion of it. And when we do, we are then, for the first time in our lives, getting some positive idea, however faint, of something super-personal — something more than a person. It is something we could never have guessed, and yet, once we have been told, one almost feels one ought to have been able to guess it because it fits in so well with all the things we know already.

You may ask, “If we cannot imagine a three-personal Being, what is the good of talking about Him?” Well, there isn’t any good talking about Him. The thing that matters is being actually drawn into that three-personal life, and that may begin any time — tonight, if you like.

What I mean is this. An ordinary simple Christian kneels down to say his prayers. He is trying to get into touch with God. But if he is a Christian he knows that what is prompting him to pray is also God: God, so to speak, inside him. But he also knows that all his real knowledge of God comes through Christ, the Man who was God — that Christ is standing beside him, helping him to pray, praying for him. You see what is happening. God is the thing to which he is praying — the goal he is trying to reach. God is also the thing inside him which is pushing him on — the motive power. God is also the road or bridge along which he is being pushed to that goal. So that the whole threefold life of the three-personal Being is actually going on in that ordinary little bedroom where an ordinary man is saying his prayers. The man is being caught up into the higher kind of life — what I called Zoe or spiritual life: he is being pulled into God, by God, while still remaining himself.

And that is how Theology started. People already knew about God in a vague way. Then came a man who claimed to be God; and yet he was not the sort of man you could dismiss as a lunatic. He made them believe Him. They met Him again after they had seen Him killed. And then, after they had been formed into a little society or community, they found God somehow inside them as well: directing them, making them able to do things they could not do before. And when they worked it all out they found they had arrived at the Christian definition of the three-personal God.

This definition is not something we have made up; Theology is, in a sense, experimental knowledge. It is the simple religions that are the made-up ones.  When I say it is an experimental science “in a sense,” I mean that it is like the other experimental sciences in some ways, but not in all. If you are a geologist studying rocks, you have to go and find the rocks. They will not come to you, and if you go to them they cannot run away. The initiative lies all on your side. They cannot either help or hinder. But suppose you are a zoologist and want to take photos of wild animals in their native haunts. That is a bit different from studying rocks. The wild animals will not come to you: but they can run away from you. Unless you keep very quiet, they will. There is beginning to be a tiny little trace of initiative on their side.

Now a stage higher; suppose you want to get to know a human person. If he is determined not to let you, you will not get to know him. You have to win his confidence. In this case the initiative is equally divided — it takes two to make a friendship.

When you come to knowing God, the initiative lies on His side. If He does not show Himself, nothing you can do will enable you to find Him. And, in fact, He shows much more of Himself to some people than to others — not because He has favourites, but because it is impossible for Him to show Himself to a man whose whole mind and character are in the wrong condition. Just as sunlight, though it has no favourites, cannot be reflected in a dusty mirror as clearly as a clean one.

You can put this another way by saying that while in other sciences the instruments you use are things external to yourself (things like microscopes and telescopes), the instrument through which you see God is your whole self. And if a man’s self is not kept clean and bright, his glimpse of God will be blurred — like the Moon seen through a dirty telescope. That is why horrible nations have horrible religions: they have been looking at God through a dirty lens.

God can show Himself as He really is only to real men. And that means not simply to men who are individually good, but to men who are united together in a body, loving one another, helping one another, showing Him to one another. For that is what God meant humanity to be like; like players in one band, or organs in one body.

Consequently, the one really adequate instrument for learning about God, is the whole Christian community, waiting for Him together. Christian brotherhood is, so to speak, the technical equipment for this science — the laboratory outfit. That is why all these people who turn up every few years with some patent simplified religion of their own as a substitute for the Christian tradition are really wasting time. Like a man who has no instrument but an old pair of field glasses setting out to put all the real astronomers right. He may be a clever chap — he may be cleverer than some of the real astronomers, but he is not giving himself a chance. And two years later everyone has forgotten all about him, but the real science is still going on.

If Christianity was something we were making up, of course we could make it easier. But it is not. We cannot compete, in simplicity, with people who are inventing religions. How could we? We are dealing with Fact. Of course anyone can be simple if he has no facts to bother about.



The term “archangel” is derived from the Greek word, “archángelos,” or “chief angel,” and is the title given to angels of the highest rank in God’s army.  Michael and Gabriel are the most recognized archangels, followed by Raphael and Uriel, whom the Bible also mentions by name.  Some branches of Christianity identify a group of seven archangels, although the names of the other three tend to vary depending on the source.  The Eastern Orthodox Church honors these seven archangels plus an eighth, Jeremiel.

Michael ~  The name in Hebrew means “Who is like God?” or “Who is equal to God?”  Michael is known as the commander of God’s army and the angel who cast Lucifer out of heaven.  In the Epistle of Saint Jude it says, “But when the Archangel Michael contended with the devil and disputed about the body of Moses, he did not dare to bring a condemnation of slander against him, but said, ‘The Lord rebuke you!'” (Jude 1:8)  Michael is often depicted wearing battle armor, holding a sword or a spear in one hand and a green palm branch in the other.

Gabriel ~  The name means “Man of God” or “Might of God,” and he is “the herald of God’s mysteries,” and especially of Jesus Christ’s incarnation.  In the Gospel According to Saint Luke it is Gabriel who announces the birth of Jesus to the Virgin Mary.  “In the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent by God to a town in Galilee called Nazareth, to a virgin engaged to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David.  The virgin’s name was Mary.  And he came to her and said, ‘Greetings, favored one!  The Lord is with you.’  But she was much perplexed by his words and pondered what sort of greeting this might be.  The angel said to her, ‘Do not be afraid, Mary, for you have found favor with God.  And now, you will conceive and bear a son, and you will name him Jesus.  He will be great, and will be called the Son of the Most High, and the Lord God will give to him the throne of his ancestor David.  He will reign over the house of Jacob forever, and of his kingdom there will be no end.'” (Luke 1:26-32)

Raphael ~  Raphael means “God’s healing,” or “God the Healer.”  In the Book of Tobit he appears to Tobias and accompanies him on his journey.  “So Tobias went out to look for a man to go with him to Media, someone who was acquainted with the way.  He went out and found the angel Raphael standing in front of him, but he did not perceive that he was an angel of God.”  Later Archangel Raphael tells Tobias’s father, Tobit, who is blind, “Take courage, the time is near for God to heal you, take courage.” (Tobit 5:4,10)

Uriel ~  The name Uriel means “Fire of God” or “Light of God.”  He appears to the Prophet Ezra in the Book of Second Esdras, rebuking him for a lack of wisdom.  “Then the angel that had been sent to me, whose name was Uriel, answered and said to me, ‘Your understanding has utterly failed regarding this world, and do you think you can comprehend the way of the Most High?'” (II Esdras 4:1-4)  After Ezra responds wisely, Uriel says, “You have judged rightly, but why have you not judged so in your own case?  For as the land has been assigned to the forest and the sea to its waves, so also those who inhabit the earth can understand only what is on the earth, and he who is above the heavens can understand what is above the height of the heavens.” (II Esdras 4:20-21)  Archangel Uriel is often depicted with a sword in his right hand and fire in his left.

Selatiel ~  Selatiel means “Intercessor of God” or “Prayer of God.”  Some Christian traditions consider him to be the angel in the Book of Revelation who pours out the prayers of the people before God’s throne.  Selatiel is depicted in artwork with his head bowed and his hands folded in prayer.

Jegudiel ~  The name Jegudiel means “Glorifier of God,” and he is mentioned in the Book of Enoch.  In paintings and icons he is shown holding a crown, the reward for successful spiritual labors.

Barachiel ~  The name Barachiel means “Blessing of God.”  He appears in the Third Book of Enoch and is described as having charge over a large number of ministering angels.  In artwork he is often shown holding a white rose in his hand.

Jeremiel ~  The Hebrew name, Jerahmeel, translates to “God’s exaltation.”  He too appears in Second Esdras and speaks to the Prophet Ezra.  Archangel Jeremiel is referred to again in the Book of Enoch as well as in other apocryphal writings.  He is the eighth member of the group and is sometimes called an archangel.

*  It should be noted that the Books of Esdras and the Book of Tobit are Apocryphal Books, and along with the Book of Enoch are not included in many Bibles.  Thanks for reading, and thanks to Wikipedia.

The Apostle of Ireland

Saint Patrick was born in Scotland in the year 387.  His parents were Roman citizens living in Britain, which is where Saint Patrick lived until he was sixteen and a group of pirates took him away to Ireland where he was enslaved and made to work as a shepherd.  During his time there Patrick devoted himself to prayer and learning about the Christian faith.  In one of his letters he writes, “The love of God and his fear grew in me more and more, as did the faith, and my soul was rosed, so that, in a single day, I have said as many as a hundred prayers and in the night, nearly the same.”  “I prayed in the woods and on the mountain, even before dawn.  I felt no hurt from the snow or ice or rain.”  After six years Patrick escaped and returned to Britain, studying Christianity and being ordained priest by Saint Germanus of Auxerre.  Prompted by a divine vision, he returned to Ireland to educate the people there, who were primarily pagans and Druids, about the Gospel of Jesus Christ.  For many years he worked and traveled, ministering, preaching, baptizing, building churches and ordaining other priests, suffering many trials and laboring tirelessly both for the Lord Jesus and for the Irish people.  He died on March 17, 461, at Saul in Ireland, the place where he built his first church.  Saint Patrick liked to use a shamrock to teach people about the Holy Trinity, the clover’s three leaves representing the three persons, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, united forever as one.